Overall, the group of industrialized countries that committed to a Kyoto target, i.e. Schedule I countries excluding the United States, had a target of reducing their greenhouse gas emissions by an average of 4.2% over the 2008-2012 period compared to the base year, which in most cases is 1990. :24 The Kyoto Protocol was an extension of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The agreement initially committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. It was based on the CONVICTION of the United Nations that there is a consensus within the scientific community that global warming is a real phenomenon and that it is mainly due to carbon emissions caused by human activity. Although the U.S. Congress did not ratify the Kyoto Protocol, it came into force in 2005 with the ratification of the protocol by Russia, which exceeded 55% of all CO2 emissions in industrialized countries in 1990. The first engagement period began in 2008 and ended in 2012. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions as a result of the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is expected to have little impact on the projected temperature increase in the first half of the 21st century (Parry et al. 1998). Therefore, reducing vulnerability to climate change is an important public health goal in the 21st century.
There are a number of factors that influence vulnerability, particularly poverty and the resulting lack of resources and infrastructure. Although historically most greenhouse gas emissions come from industrialized countries, vulnerability to climate change is likely greater in developing countries. Gupta et al. (2007)  also examined the 450 ppm projected scenarios for non-Annex I parts. Non-Annex I emissions are projected to be reduced in several regions (Latin America, the Middle East, East Asia and Central Asia) to be significantly reduced under the “business-as-usual” by 2020.  Business-as-usuals are not projected in Schedule I in the absence of new emission control measures. Emissions in all regions outside Annex I are projected to be significantly reduced by 2050 under the “business-as-usual” level.  The parties… ensures, individually or collectively, that their total anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide equivalent from Schedule A`s greenhouse gases do not exceed the amounts allocated, calculated on the basis of their quantified reduction and reduction commitments set out in Schedule B and Annex B, in order to reduce their total emissions of these gases by at least 5% below the 1990 level during the 2008-2012 commitment period. The agreement is a protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), adopted at the 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit, which has not set legally binding restrictions on emissions or enforcement mechanisms.
Only parties to the UNFCCC can become parties to the Kyoto Protocol.